RedTacton

1. Abstract
Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, when networks are seamlessly interconnected and information is always accessible at our fingertips. The practical implementation of ubiquitous services requires three levels of connectivity: Wide Area Networks (WAN), typically via the Internet, to remotely connect all types of severs and terminals; Local Area Networks (LAN), typically via Ethernet or Wi-Fi connectivity among all the information and communication appliances in offices and homes; and Human Area Networks (HAN) for connectivity to personal information, media and communication appliances within the much smaller sphere of ordinary daily activities the last one meter. Technology is making many things easier; I can say that our concept is standing example for that. So far we have seen LAN, MAN, WAN, INTERNET & many more but here is new concept of “ RED TACTON ” which makes the human body as a communication network by name …HAN(Human Area Network). In this paper we will discuss about redtacton, and its working States, and Applications of redtacton various fields. And we will compare our redtacton with the other technology for data transmission. And know about human area network.

2. INTRODUCTION
Human Area Networking (HAN) is a technology that safely turns the surface of the human body into a data transmission path at speeds up to 10 Mbps between any two points on the body.
RedTacton is a new Human Area Networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path. RedTacton uses the minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body. Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared .A transmission path is formed at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a RedTacton transceiver. Physically separating ends the contact and thus ends communication Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations according to the user’s Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet,face, legs or torso. RedTacton works natural, physical movements

3. HISTORY OF HAN
• The concept of intra-body communication was first proposed by IBM in 1996.
• This communication mechanism was later evaluated and reported by several research groups around the world.
All those reported technologies had two limitations.
1. The operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of centimeters.
2. The top communication speed was only 40 bit/s!!
These limitations were overcome by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) located in Tokyo, Japan by using photonic electric field sensors and finally came up with a human area networking technology called ‘REDTACTON’.[6] 3.1 Overview of RedTacton
• RedTacton is a new Human Area Networking technology that turns the surface of the human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path.
• Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers arms, feet, face, legs or toes.
• RedTacton works through shoes and clothing as well.
• RedTacton uses the minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body for data transmission.
NTT developed super sensitive Photonic electric field sensor for detecting minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body.

The electro-optic sensor has three key features:
• It can measure electric fields from a device under test (DUT) without contacting it, which minimizes measurement disturbance.
• Ultra wide-band measurement is possible.
• It supports one-point contact measurement that is independent of the ground, which is the most significant feature in the present context.
NTT utilized this third feature to fabricate an intra-body communication receiver for its human area networking technology, which is called RedTacton.
At the end of 2002 the Japanese telecommunications group NTT had announced that it would develop a new data transmission technology that uses the conductive properties of the human body to exchange information between electronic devices.
With RedTacton the company has now scarcely two and a half years later presented its first prototype of a Human Area Network (HAN).
Japanese company Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) claims to have developed the first viable Human Area Network (HAN) device, enabling fast data transfer between devices using the human body as a conduit. NTT reckons this latest advance on the wireless Personal Area Network concept – dubbed RedTacton- can transmit data over the surface of the skin at up to 2Mbps. Where it differs, though, from previous offerings, is that a RedTacton-enabled device does not have to be in direct contact with the skin – only within about 20cm.
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Figure1: RED TACTON Device

4. REDTACTON
Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where networks are seamlessly interconnected and information is always accessible at our fingertips.
Red- Warmth, T-Touch, Acton-Action stands for RedTacton. Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data RedTacton uses weak electric fields on the surface of the body as a transmission medium.
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) is pursuing research and development of an innovative Human Area Networking technology called RedTacton that safely turns the surface of the human body into a data transmission path at speeds up to 10 Mbps between any two points on the body. [2] Using a novel electro-optic sensor, NTT has already developed a small PCMCIA card-sized prototype RedTacton transceiver. RedTacton enables the first practical Human Area Network between body-centered electronic devices and PCs or other network devices embedded in the environment via a new generation of user interface based on totally natural human actions such as touching, holding, sitting, walking, or stepping on a particular spot.
RedTacton can be used for intuitive operation of computer-based systems in daily life, temporary one-to-one private networks based on personal handshaking, device personalization, security, and a host of other applications based on new behavior patterns enabled by RedTacton. NTT is committed to moving RedTacton out of the laboratory and into commercial production as quickly as possible by organizing joint field trials with partners outside the company.
5. WORKING OF REDTACTON

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Figure2: Working of RedTacton

RedTacton utilizes a point to point network, known as a Pico-net that allows information to be exchanged between two transceivers without the need for a server to store or process information RedTacton operates on the idea that optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a person own electric field. After contact with another RedTacton enabled device, the transmitter induces an electric field on the body. Next, the transceiver on the device detects changes in the wearer’s electric field which was cause by the device. The devices then communicate and send data by inducing fluctuations in the electric field of the human body. Data is received using a photonic electric field sensor that combines an electro-optic crystal and a laser light to detect fluctuations in the minute electric field.
Multiple transceivers can be used simultaneously. This is because RedTacton uses a proprietary CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol that allows multiple accesses with the same medium from multiple nodes.
When using a RedTacton device, the human body effectively becomes an
Ethernet cable, so the body can use its electrical field to connect devices to networks or the internet. For example, if a person wearing a RedTacton device sat at a table with RedTacton capabilities that was connected to the Internet, the laptop would immediately be connected to the internet. While on the surface this seems similar to a wireless network connection, it is not. There is a physical connection, the person. Also, the connection is more secure and does not slow down if many people are using the same connection, as a wireless connection does.
5.1 MECHANISM OF REDTACTON
Data is received using a photonic electric field sensor that combines an electro-optic crystal and a laser light to detect fluctuations in the minute electric field. The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam

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Figure 3: Various electric fields on the surface of body induced by the RED TACTON device

Only a portion of the induced electric field is sensed by the receiving REDTACTON device. The remaining electric fields are dissipated to the ground.
6. SCOPE OF REDTACTON
Each device we wish to communicate with must be equipped with a RedTacton transceiver that is able to detect the messages programmed into our own device. We are able to program our devices to exchange specific types of information by using a programmable transceiver that connects to any computer and allows users to customize their transmission settings through a graphical user interface. Once transmitter, is programmed to recognize and exchange information with other devices we select, we will be able to communicate with them easily.

7. REDTACTON’S NEED
All bargaining power in the consumer market lies with the device manufacturers who would be our buyers. Our suppliers are companies such as NTT that provide this technology to the device manufacturers. Currently, we define a device as any handheld communication medium such as a cell phone or PDA. However, as this technology evolves and its popularity spreads, a device could be any piece of technology that we wish to exchange information with.
While device manufacturers may see the potential benefits of RedTacton technology, they will likely require a significant monetary fee to influence them to build this new technology into their devices. The introduction of new technologies into existing devices often requires significant design changes that can be costly and time consuming. Unless the device manufacturer stands to benefit from the design change they may reject the new technology in favor of promoting and developing the old one. RedTacton also needs a lot of research and development. The government, military, or medical professionals might be ideally suited to help further develop the technology and find other uses for it

8. SYSTEM SAFETY
No current flows into human body from RedTacton devices. RedTacton uses the Electric field that occurs naturally on the surface of the human body for Communication. Transmitter and receiver electrodes are covered with an Insulating films.
The transmitting and receiving ends of the RedTacton devices are completely insulated, so body of the person using the device is completely insulated without affecting the body during transmitting the signal. When communication occurs displacement current is generated by electrons that are present everywhere in human body. Body is subjected to minute electric fields so such displacement currents are common everyday occurrences. [4] 9. REDTACTON TRANSCEIVER
Figure below shows the block diagram of a RED TACTON transceiver. The signal from the interface is sent to the data sense circuit and the transmitter circuit. The data sense circuit senses the signal and if the data is present it sends control signal to the transmitter which activates the transmitter circuit. The transmitter circuit varies the electric field on the surface of our body. This change in the electric field is detected by the electro-optic sensor. The output of the electro-optic sensor is given to the detector circuit, which in turn given to the interface of the receiving REDTACTON device.

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Figure 4: Block diagram of Red TACTON transceiver.

9.1 WORKING PROCEDURE
1. Transmitter sends data
2. Transmitting transceiver creates a change in the field
3. Field from human body dissipates into earth
4. Electric field is received using sensing technology
5. Receiving transceiver recognizes the change in the electric field
6. Sensing technology measures the weak electric fields induced.
7. Electro-optical crystal uses laser to convert and read the signal.

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Figure 5: Experimental setup for intra-body communication

10. HUMAN AREA NETWORKS
In addition to the WANs (Internet) and LANs, there are applications best served by Human Area Networks (HANs) that connect the last meter.

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Figure6: Connection with other networks

Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is networked. By making Human Area Networks feasible, RedTacton will enable ubiquitous services based on human-centered interactions and therefore more intimate and easier for people to use.
Imagine holding your digital camera in one hand and touching a printer with your other which initiates the transfer of images from your camera to your printer. In an instant you have downloaded your pictures and are ready to print them out without the need for connecting cables and intermediary devices such as a computer.[3] 11. FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF REDTACTON
A communications path can be created with a simple touch, automatically initiating the flow of data between a body-centric electronic device and a computer that is embedded in the environment. For example, two people equipped with RedTacton devices could exchange data just by shaking hands. A wide range of natural human actions grasping, sitting down, walking, or standing in a particular place can be used to trigger RedTacton to start a networked process.
Using a RedTacton electro-optic sensor, two-way communication is supported between any two points on the body at a throughput of up to 10 Mbps. Communication is not just confined to the surface of the body, but can travel through the user’s clothing to a RedTacton device in a pocket or through shoes to communicate with a RedTacton device embedded in the floor. Unlike wireless technologies, the transmission speed does not deteriorate even in the presence of large crowds of people all communicating at the same time in meeting rooms, auditoriums or stores. Because the body surface is the transmission path, increasing the number of connected users directly increases the available number of individual channels.

11.1 TOUCH
Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data. Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the human’s natural movements.

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Figure7: Touching & Gripping

11.2 BROADBAND & INTERACTIVE
Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the
same time .Taking advantage of this speed, device drivers can be downloaded instantly and execute programs can be sent.

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Figure 8: difference between wireless LAN and Redtacton

11.3 ANY MEDIA
In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination. A communication environment can be created easily and at low-cost by using items close at hand, such as desks, walls, and metal objects. But there is one limitation on the length of the conductor to be propagated, on installation locations, and on the thickness of the dielectric to be passed through.
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Figure9: Dielectrics & Conductors

12. APPLICATIONS
12.1Device Personalization
Setup, registration, and configuration information for an individual user can all be uploaded to a device the instant the device is touched, eliminating the need for the device to be registered or configured in advance.

12.2 Security Applications
User verification and lock management at entrance: RedTacton could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such that each secure access could be initiated and authenticated with a simple touch. At the same time, all the transaction details and relevant user attributes (personal identity, security clearance, etc.) could be logged by the security system. Confidential document management.For gun security.

12.3Other Uses
Many areas can benefit from this technology. Initially, RedTacton could target security, the medical field, and the device communication field. The medical field would benefit in many ways. For example, implanted devices could use the technology to transmit information regarding their performance to doctors, patients wearing the device could quickly and securely transmit their medical history, and medicine containers could have chips embedded in them that when touched could send an alarm to the user, if the user’s device is programmed to know that an allergy to the medicine exists. Device communication is where RedTacton would compete with Bluetooth. Since RedTacton is more secure that Bluetooth, it would excel at connecting cell phones to headsets and transmitting data from one person’s PDA to another’s. As mentioned before, RedTacton is already positioning itself to become a ‘human swipe card’ and become the ultimate security device. One potential application that will be explored in depth is gun control.
12.3 New behavior patterns
Tables, walls, floors and chairs can all act as conductors and dielectrics, turning furniture and other architectural elements into a new class of transmission medium. For example, a user could have instant access to the Internet merely by placing a laptop onto a conductive tabletop.

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Touch printer to print

 

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User verification & unlocking with touch

 

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Connect to the network by putting laptop table

 

Figure 10: Various applications of RedTacton

 

13. COMPARISON WITH OTHER NETWORKS
. 13.1 BLUETOOTH
The system envisioned by NTT, utilizes a conversion method which takes digital data into a stream of low-power digital pulses. These can be easily transmitted and read back through the human electric field.
While it is true that similar personal area networks are already accessible by using radio-based technologies like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, this new wireless technology claims to be able to send data over the human skin surface at transfer speeds of up to 10Mbps, or better than a broadband T1 connection. Receiving data in such a system is more complicated because the strength of the pulses sent through the electric field is so low.
RedTacton solves this issue by utilizing a technique called electric field photonics: A laser is passed though an electro-optic crystal, which deflects light differently according to the strength of the field across it. These deflections are measured and converted back into electrical signals to retrieve the transmitted data.
According to Tom Zimmerman, inventor of the IBM personal networking system, body-based networking is more secure than broadcast systems, such as Bluetooth, which have a range of about 10m.The issue is that with Bluetooth, it is difficult to rein in the signal and restrict it to the device you are trying to connect to. But in a busy place there could be hundreds of Bluetooth devices within range.
Moreover, body-based networking seems to allow for more natural interchanges of infor0mation between humans, as only when you are in true proximity you can make this system work. There are some specific applications that would appear as being ideal matches for RedTacton-like technologies.
13.2 COMPARISON TABLE

E:Excelent               P:Poor

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14. ADVANTAGES OF REDTACTON
• RedTacton does not require the electrode to be in direct contact with the skin.
• Can transmit data at a rate higher than that of peer technologies. (max. of 10Mbps)
• RedTacton transceivers are programmable and we can decide what to share with whom and what devices you communicate with.
• Each communication occurs in separate channels.
• Transmission speed does not deteriorate even though the number of users increases.
• Data loss during transfer is less
• Use of minimum amount of power (of some milli-volt range)
• Security is more.
• In this technology there is no problem of hackers as our body is itself a media.
• More secure than Bluetooth.
• Superior than infrared technology & Wi-Fi.

15. CHALLENGES
Currently, many popular technologies exist in the marketplace which provides similar functions to RedTacton technology. The first is Bluetooth. Bluetooth is also a short range frequency allowing users to transmit data within approximately a 10M range. Bluetooth, however, is insecure. The signal can be tapped into and used by others. Zigbee, IrDA, and UWB are also potential competitors.
The main challenges faced are:
• The obvious barrier to entry is that the cost and time to develop HAN TECH. is very expensive.
• As a new technology HAN need to gain popularity among users to help pull the technology into the marketplace instead of having it pushed upon them.
• Widespread marketing campaigns will need to be developed to highlight the benefits of HAN technology to facilitate its adoption.
• Not useful unless many people adopt it.
• It can be useful within few centimeters only.
16. CONCLUSION
Many areas can benefit from this technology RedTacton can be used for intuitive operation of computer-based systems in daily life, temporary one-to-one private networks based on personal handshaking, device personalization, security, and a host of other applications based on new behavior patterns enabled by RedTacton. Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is networked. RedTacton is gearing up to compete with Bluetooth, Zigbee, IrDA (infrared data association), UWB (ultra wide band), and other wireless communication forms.
So we can clearly say that, this technology will spawn revolutionary changes in the modern communications and become a pivot technology. When we compare RedTacton with other technologies, RedTacton will give a better performance over other. In this technology there is no problem of hackers as our body is itself a media. If RedTacton is introduced into cyber market it brings a marvelous & tremendous change and will be adopted by many more people.
So, in few years from now everything is going to fall under this super technology. And, finally I conclude, “FUTURE BELONGS TO REDTACTON”

17. REFERENCES
[1] T. G. Zimmerman, “Personal Area Networks: Near-field intra body
communication,” IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 35, Nos. 3&4, p no. 609-
617,1996.
[2] T. Nagatsuma and M. Shinagawa, “Photonic measurement technologies
For high-frequency electronics,” NTT REVIEW, Vol. 14, No. 6,
P no.12-24,2002.
[3] M. Shinagawa, “Development of Electro-optic Sensors for Intra-body
Communication,” NTT Technical Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, p no. 6-11,
2004.
[4] M. Shinagawa, M. Fukumoto, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A near field-
sensing transceiver for intra-body communication based on the
electro-optic effect,” IEEE Trans. IM, Vol. 53, No. 6, pp. 1533-1538,
2004.
[5] M. Mizoguchi, T. Okimura, and A. Matsuda, “Comprehensive Commercialization
Functions,” NTT Technical Review, Vol. 3, No. 5, p no.12-16, 2005.
[6] H. Hosaka, “Intra-Body Communication Technique,” The Japan society of mechanical engineers, Vol.105, No.1008, pp.760, November 2002.
[7] http://www.scribd.com/doc/48566744/seminar-Report-on- RedTacton

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