All of us would like to drive our car with a mobile held in one hand, talking to the other person. But we should be careful; we don’t know when the car just before us apply the break and everything are gone. A serious problem encountered in most of the cities, National Highways, where any mistake means no ‘turning back’! There comes the tomorrows technology; Hand-free devices for safer driving car, Initializing the modern technological approach in Robotics.
Hands-free is an adjective describing equipment that can be used without the use of hands (for example via voice commands) or, in a wider sense, equipment which needs only limited use of hands, or for which the controls are positioned so that the hands are able to occupy themselves with another task such as driving without needing to hunt far afield for the controls.
In the area of advanced driver assistance and automation systems knowledge about the vehicle environment is becoming more and more important in order to increase traffic safety. This seminar is concerned with the used of latest technologies of hands-free devices such as Bluetooth device, Eye-phone( activating mobile phone with your eyes), headset are used to prevent collision.
A hands-free device is an apparatus used with cell phones that permits the user to talk on the phone without holding it. Through the assistance of the hands-free device, the user can let the phone lie in one area while talking into a microphone attached to his or her lapel. Alternatively, the hands free device may incorporate a headband that places the microphone in front of the user’s mouth. In order to listen to the person on the other end, the user has an earbud speaker placed in one ear.
Devices that are typically used for hands-free communication use Bluetooth as its wireless technology and activating mobile phones by your eyes. They still require a mobile phone or other device to initiate a call. These devices include Bluetooth headsets, hands-free car kits (HFCK). Originally introduced as optional features connected by a wire to mobile phones or other communication devices, they now generally are available with wireless technologies.
One of the primary reasons behind the development of the hands-free device was to free up the hands of drivers as they talk on the cell phone. There is, however, much debate as to whether or not the hands-free device truly makes driving safer. Supporters of the hands-free device contend that it allows the driver to keep both of his or her hands on the wheel. Therefore, the driver is in a position to drive more cautiously and to better control the vehicle.
What is the need for safety precaution ?
Driving while talking on a cell phone or otherwise operating a mobile communication device can lead to serious safety hazards that include vehicle collisions, injury and even death. Drivers who absolutely must continue driving while using their mobile phones, though, can take a few basic safety precautions to reduce the likelihood of an accident.
• Go Hands Free
Using a wireless handset or in-vehicle speaker and microphone system frees up a driver’s hands for more important tasks, such as steering the vehicle or shifting gears. In some areas, hands-free devices are more than a convenience for drivers; state and local laws require them. According to the Governors’ Highway Safety Association, eight states forbid drivers from using a mobile phone handset while driving as of March 2011, and 30 more disallow using the devices to send or receive text messages while operating a motor vehicle. Headsets and built-in speaker and microphone systems do have their critics, though; a 2009 article in “Motor Trend” magazine notes that the distraction of a conversation, not holding the phone itself, increases the likelihood of a car crash.
• Keep the Vehicle Maintained
A poorly maintained vehicle can seem sluggish or, in some cases, respond unpredictably to the driver’s input. The driver safety website Texting While Driving notes that regular tire rotation and proper tire inflation can help drivers maintain control of the vehicle while talking on a cell phone. Other basic maintenance items, like changing windshield wipers and keeping the windshield washer fluid full, can help minimize additional driver distractions during a phone conversation.
• Slow Down
Driving at high speeds reduces the time between a driving error and a collision, and high velocities can amplify the destructive effects of a crash. Because driving at slower speeds allows distracted drivers more time to react to obstacles and unexpected roadway issues, Texting While Driving recommends that drivers slow down when using a cell phone. Many cities enforce minimum speed limits designed to maintain a steady flow of traffic, though, so slowing down may not be an option for some drivers. In addition, distracted drivers moving at a significantly slower speed than other nearby vehicles can raise, rather than lower, the likelihood of a crash.
• Keep the Phone on Wireless mode
The 2009 “Motor Trend” article discussing distracted driving noted that many accidents occur as drivers reach for their wireless phones. To help reduce the risk of cell phone-related accidents, traffic expert Reed Berry recommends keeping the phone on wireless mode. If the phone rings or the driver must make a call, having the phone nearby can reduce the driver’s need to reach for the device. Berry recommends pulling off the road to dial or look up numbers, though, as these actions divert the driver’s attention from the road for an unsafe amount of time. Berry goes on to recommend using the phone’s speed dial or voice dialing functions to further reduce the amount of attention the driver must divert from the road to the phone.
Bluetooth hands-free options are now also easily found in any high end automotive as part of the vehicle’s stereo system, or in after market stereo system units. This option utilizes the vehicle’s speakers to transmit the caller’s voice in the phone call and have an embedded microphone in the stereo unit itself, the steering wheel, or use a separate wired microphone that can be placed anywhere in the vehicle.
A Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone is able to pair with many devices. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support, the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has published a recommendations paper, entitled “Bluetooth Local Connectivity”. • Eye-phone:
Human-Phone Interaction represents an extension of the field of Human-Computer Interaction since Human-Phone Interaction presents new challenges that need to be addressed specifically driven by issues of mobility, the form factor of the phone, and its resource limitations(e.g., energy and computation). More specifically the factors of the mobile phone environment are mobility and lack of sophisticated hardware support, i.e., specialized headset, overhead cameras, and dedicated sensors ,that are often required to realize Human-Computer Interaction applications.
• The Bluetooth SIG
The name “Bluetooth” and its logo are trademarked by the privately held trade association named the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).
Founded in September 1998, the Bluetooth SIG is a unification of leaders in the telecommunications, computing, network, industrial automation, and Automotive industries. Today, the Bluetooth SIG is responsible for encouraging and supporting research and development in Bluetooth technology.
The Bluetooth SIG includes promoter member companies Microsoft, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Agere, Motorola, Nokia, and Toshiba, plus thousands of Associate and Adopter member companies (BlueTomorrow.com’s parent company, SP Commerce LLC, is a licensed and certified Adopter member of the Bluetooth SIG).
• Why is it Called Bluetooth?
The developers of this wireless technology first used the name “Bluetooth” as a code name, but as time past, the name stuck.
The word “Bluetooth” is taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Bluetooth. King Bluetooth had been influential in uniting Scandinavian Europe during an era when the region was torn apart by wars and feuding clans.
The founders of the Bluetooth SIG felt the name was fitting because:
1) Bluetooth technology was first developed in Scandinavia, and
2) Bluetooth technology is able to unite differing industries such as the cell phone, computing, and automotive markets. Bluetooth wireless technology simplifies and combines multiple forms of wireless communication into a single, secure, low-power, low-cost, globally available radio frequency.
• Where Did the Logo Come From?
A Scandinavian firm originally designed the logo at the time the SIG was formally introduced to the public. Keeping to the same origin as the Bluetooth name, the logo unites the Runic alphabetic characters “H”, which looks similar to an asterisk, and a “B”, which are the initials for Harald Bluetooth. If you look close enough you can see both embodied in the logo.
• Bluetooth Technology Over the Years
1998 – Bluetooth technology is officially introduced and the Bluetooth SIG is formed. Bluetooth technology’s intended basic purpose is to be a wire replacement technology in order to rapidly transfer voice and data.
1999 – Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is introduced.
2003 – The Bluetooth SIG overhauls the Bluetooth Core Specification with the announcement of Version 2.1.
2004 – Bluetooth Version 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) is introduced.
2005 – Devices using Version 2.0 + EDR begin to hit the market in late 2005.
2007 – Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 + EDR is adopted by the Bluetooth SIG.
2009 – Bluetooth Core Specification Version 3.0 + HS (High Speed) is adopted by the Bluetooth SIG.
Since hands free devices replace a phone’s own speaker and microphone capability in a phone call, they now also must deal with the same issues that standard mobile phones and land phones deal with. The main acoustic issues are echo cancellation and noise suppression, although there are others as well. There have been many ways developed to cancel echo in phone calls and results range from poor to excellent.
These acoustic technologies must also remove or reduce the noise levels so that the caller is well understood. A person making a call from a hands-free device who is in a busy driving will introduce large levels of noise into the call. This situation is complicated as the software must not only remove the noise around him, but must transmit his voice clearly and loudly to whoever is connected to him. The best software solutions combine both echo cancellation and noise cancellation into a single technology so that the caller has the freedom to use a hands free device anywhere they please. Having an acoustic solution with only one feature will dramatically reduce its flexibility.
Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, digital cameras, and video game consoles.
Eye-phone system is capable of driving mobile functions using only the user’s eyes movement and actions (e.g., wink). Eye-Phone tracks the user’s eye movement across the phone’s display using the camera mounted on the front of the phone; more specifically, machine learning algorithms are used to: i) track the eye and infer its position on the mobile phone display as a user views a particular application; and ii) detect eye blinks that emulate mouse clicks to activate the target application under view. Eye-Phone implement on a Nokia N810, which is capable of tracking the position of the eye on the display, mapping this positions to an application that is activated by a wink. At no time does the user have to physically touch the phone display.
The Eye-phone algorithmic design breaks down into the following pipeline phases: an eye detection phase; an open eye template creation phase; an eye tracking phase; a blink detection phase. In what follows, we discuss each of the phases in turn.
Figure 1: Left figure: example of eye contour pair returned by the original algorithm running on a desktop with a USB camera. The two white clusters identify the eye pair. Right figure: example of number of contours returned by Eye-phone on the Nokia N810. The smaller dots are erroneously interpreted as eye contours.
By applying a motion analysis technique which operates on consecutive frames, this phase consists on finding the contour of the eyes. The eye pair is identifed by the left and right eye contours. While the original algorithm identifies the eye pair with almost no error when running on a desktop computer with a fixed camera (see the left image in figure 1) we obtain errors when the algorithm is implemented on the phone due to the quality of the N810 camera compared to the one on the desktop and Figure 1: Left figure: example of eye contour pair returned by the original algorithm running on a desktop with a USB camera. The two white clusters identify the eye pair. Right figure: example of number of contours returned by Eye-phone on the Nokia N810. The smaller dots are erroneously interpreted as eye contours. the unavoidable movement of the phone while in a person’s hand (refer to the right image in Figure 1). Based on these experimental observations, we modify the original algorithm by: i) reducing the image resolution, which according to the authors in reduces the eye detection error rate, and ii) adding two more criteria to the original heuristics that filter out the false eye contours
Open Eye Template Creation.
While the authors in adopt an online open eye template creation by extracting the template every time the eye pair is lost (this could happen because of lighting condition changes or movement in the case of a mobile device), Eye-phone does not
rely on the same strategy. The reduced computation speed compared to a desktop machine and the restricted battery requirements imposed by the N810 dictate a different approach. Eye-phone creates a template of a user’s open eye
once at the beginning when a person uses the system for the first time using the eye detection algorithm described above. The template is saved in the persistent memory of the device and fetched when Eye-phone is invoked. By taking this simple approach, we drastically reduce the runtime inference delay of Eye-phone, the application memory footprint, and the battery drain. The downside of this online template creation approach is that a template created in certain lighting conditions might not be perfectly suitable for other environments.
The eye template is created by each user when the application is used for the first time.
Figure 2:Eye capture using the Nokia N810 front camera running the EyePhone system. The inner white box surrounding the right eye is used to discriminate the nine positions of the eye on the phone’s display. The outer box encloses the template matching region.
The eye tracking algorithm is based on template matching. The template matching function calculates a correlation score between the open eye template, created the first time the application is used, and a search window. In order to reduce the computation time of the template matching function and save resources, the search
window is limited to a region which is twice the size of a box enclosing the eye.
In the Eye-phone system, we have two situations to deal with: the quality of the camera is not the same as a good USB camera, and the phone’s camera is generally closer to the person’s face than is the case of using a desktop and USB camera. Because of this latter situation the camera can pick up iris movements, i.e., the interior of the eye, due to eyeball rotation. In particular, when the iris is turned towards the corner of the eye, upwards or downwards, a blink is inferred even if the eye remains open. This occurs because in this case the majority of the eye ball surface turns white which is confused with the color of the skin.
Figure 4: EyeMenu on the Nokia N900. While looking the display, a button is highlighted if it matches the eye position on the display. The highlighted button is ready to be \clicked” with a blink of the eye.In this example, the user is looking at the SMS button and the SMS keypad is launched by blinking the eye.
Advantages of Bluetooth devices include:
• Hands-free dialing and answering
• Built-in speaker system
• Easy set-up
• Compatible with other audio devices
• Low energy consumption
• Surf and sync
• As driving
• For Multi-tasker
• Controlling on vehicle/car
• Hands-free Dialing and answering :
You can use the Bluetooth rear view mirror device with most Bluetooth compatible cell phones, iPods, and other audio devices. Enjoy hands-free dialing by tagging phone numbers so they can be activated when saying a person’s name. You will also be able to answer the phone, reject a call, or redial when you miss a call by pushing one button. Since the rear view mirror device can pick up a signal from up to thirty feet away, you can leave your cell phone in your bag even when you need to make a call.
• Built-in Speaker system :
This device is also equipped with a built-in speaker system that allows you to hear and be heard clearly through a powerful microphone. If you need privacy, you can purchase a wireless headpiece that allows you to hear the conversation, but prevents others who may be in the vehicle to listen in. If you want to connect the device to your car stereo, you do so easily using the FM transmitter. This will allow you to hear those on the phone clearly and reduce outside noise and interference.
• Easy set-up
Bluetooth rear view wireless devices snap onto your rear view mirror quickly and easily. There is no need to have your car wired for hands-free technology as the device is equipped with all the necessary transmitters.
If you need assistance, you will receive a start-up guide that can answer many of your questions. Included is a rechargeable battery with a run time of about one week. You will need to recharge it often in order to for the device to provide continual use. Because you do not need to have your car wired for Bluetooth when using a rear view mirror device, this is an excellent alternative to paying extra when buying a new car or having Bluetooth installed in an older model.
• COMPATIBLE WITH OTHER AUDIO DEVICES
This device is compatible with other devices that contain a Bluetooth chip. These devices including iPods, laptops, and cell phones. You can connect your iPod to the hands-free device and listen to music easily.
As you can see, there are many advantages to purchasing a Bluetooth rear view mirror hands-free device. Regardless of whether you are traveling for business or if you are driving around town, being safe when on the road should be your primary concern. Hands-free devices allow you to pay more attention when driving and less attention trying to make a phone call.
• Low Energy Consumption
As stated above, Bluetooth uses low power signals. As a result, the technology requires little energy and will therefore use less battery or electrical power. Obviously, this is a great benefit for mobile devices because Bluetooth won’t drain the life of your device’s battery.
• Surf and Sync
Need to check your email or a web page on your laptop? Create a GPRS connection to the Internet with your cell phone,and then connect your phone and computer using Bluetooth. Your laptop is now online.
Send pictures to another phone, computer, or any other compatible Bluetooth device.
Print images directly from your phone, without having to connect any cables to your printer
• For the multi-tasker
The hands-free device makes it possible to easily move about and complete other tasks while talking on the phone. The hands-free device also makes it easier for the user to take notes or to type on the computer while talking on the phone.
Bluetooth technology is essential while using your cell phone while driving. The ability to talk through a wireless headset helps the driver forget about holding the phone, wires or other accessories and to focus on the road. Answering incoming calls have never been easier, and making calls requires just the touch of a button or a voice command.
Bluetooth offers a variety of benefits over regular, wired hands-free headsets while in the car. It is fast, easy to manage, and safer than fumbling with wires, and there’s no chance it can become unplugged. Turning your head to check your mirrors and blind spots won’t pull the cell phone into your lap, and making a call requires less buttons to push (sometimes none if your phone supports voice commands). Incoming calls are easy to answer by pushing the button on your headset rather than on your phone.
Bluetooth headsets come in many sizes, colors and shapes. Most of them operate with very few buttons and are a snap to sync with your cell phone. Some headsets have better sound quality and internal components and will last longer. Many headsets will filter out external sounds, like road noise.
In range bluetooth has high range of 10-100m as compare to infrared. Infrared has a range of 1m.
Data rate of infrared is high of 16Mbps and data rate of Bluetooth is <1.
Drivers who use a mobile phone, whether hand-held or hands-free:
1. are much less aware of what’s happening on the road around them
2. fail to see road signs
3. fail to maintain proper lane position and steady speed
4. are more likely to ‘tailgate’ the vehicle in front
5. react more slowly and take longer to brake
6. are more likely to enter unsafe gaps in traffic
7. feel more stressed and frustrated.
Research indicates that they are also four times more likely to crash, injuring or killing themselves and/or other people.
Using a hands-free phone while driving does not significantly reduce the risks because the problems are caused mainly by the mental distraction and divided attention of taking part in a phone conversation at the same time as driving.
With Bluetooth being very popular with wireless, it’s no wonder there are many applications available for the technology.
• Wireless networking between laptops and desktop computers, or desktops that are in a confined space and little bandwidth is needed.
• Peripherals such as mice, keyboards, and printers. Cell phones with Bluetooth technology have been sold in large numbers, as they are able to connect to computers, and various other devices. The standard also includes the support for more powerful and longer range devices
• The transfer of files, images and MP3, between mobile phones.
• Certain MP3 players and digital cameras to transfer files to and from computers.
• Bluetooth technology headsets for smart phones and cell phones.
• Data logging equipment that transmits data to a computer via Bluetooth technology.
• Sony Play-station 3 and Nintendo Revolution will both use Bluetooth technology for their wireless controllers.
• Video game systems are using Bluetooth technology as well, for their wireless controllers. This is great news for gaming fans, as Bluetooth offers the best in wireless data transmission, etc.
Eye-Menu is a way to short-cut the access to some of the phone’s functions. The set of applications in the menu can be customized by the user. The idea is the following: the position of a person’s eye is mapped to one of the nine buttons. A button is highlighted when Eye-Phone detects the eye in the position mapped to the button. If a user blinks their eye, the application associated with the button is lunched. Driving the mobile phone user interface with the eyes can be used as a way to facilitate the interaction with mobile phones or in support of people with disabilities.
• Car Driver Safety.:
Eye-Phone could also be used to detect drivers drowsiness and distraction in cars. While car manufactures are developing technology to improve drivers safety by detecting drowsiness and distraction using dedicated sensors and cameras, Eye-Phone could be readily usable for the same purpose even on low-end cars by just clipping the phone on the car dashboard.
Hand-free devices for safer driving, Initializing the modern technological approach in Robotics.
For a hands-free devices more data are needed both with regard to the safety implications of cell phone, hands-free devices (and other technology) use while driving, and levels of exposure to these technologies. This statewide survey of cell phone users and non-users represents a step in this direction.
The public is much more likely to continue its support for restrictions on hand-held phone use, believing the hands-free systems to confer some level of safety.
One in four respondents (28.2 percent) indicated that they used a hands-free device when talking on their cell phone while driving. For nearly two-thirds of these individuals, this hands-free device was a headset or earpiece connected to the phone; only one-third indicated that they had a speaker phone system. Those who had hands-free systems reported using them on most occasions. The overall mean use rate was 72.8 percent, while the median use rate was 80.0 percent. One-third reported always using their hands-free system. There were no significant differences in reported use rates by respondent age or by the type of system available. Mean use rate was 75.3 percent for those with speaker phones, compared to 71.5 percent for those with headsets and/or earpieces. Those who had hands-free systems overwhelmingly (89.9 percent) felt that the system made it easier for them to talk on the phone while driving. Almost as many (87.7 percent) felt that it made it safer for them to talk on the phone while driving.
In conclusion, based on the evidence from above research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world.As application bluetooth headset, eye-phone device use for safer driving, but using a Bluetooth headset, eye-phone while driving does not significantly reduce the risks because the problems are caused mainly by the mental distraction and divided attention of taking part in a phone conversation at the same time as driving.
 EyePhone : Emiliano Miluzzo, Tianyu Wang, Andrew T. Campbell Computer science Department Dartmouth College Hanover, NH, USA
 Eye Tracking and Blink Detection Library.