Differences between MD4 and MD5?

The following are the differences between MD4 and MD5:

  • A fourth round has been added.
  • Each step now has a unique additive constant.
  • The function g in round 2 was changed from (XY v XZ v YZ) to (XZ v Y not(Z)) to make g less symmetric.
  • Each step now adds in the result of the previous step. This promotes a faster “avalanche effect”.
  • The order in which input words are accessed in rounds 2 and 3 is changed, to make these patterns less like each other.
  • The shift amounts in each round have been approximately optimized, to yield a faster “avalanche effect.” The shifts in different rounds are distinct.

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