CNE Unit 1 Notes

Q1) State the reason for implementing a network (1mark each point)


1)Network is the communication system which supports more than one user.

2)Networking is the engineering discipline which concerns itself with the communication between computer system and their device.

3)Computer can connected to each other so that they can share file and folders, application or resources like printer, scanner etc

4) Computer network provide network services like file service, printing service, message service, application services and database services.


Q2) Define computer network.(2 marks definition)


Computer network is a collection of computer systems which can communicate with each other.


Two or more computer connected together through a communication media like coaxial cable, fiber optics or satellite is called as computer networks.


Q3) Enlist eight applications of computer network.

( ½ marks for each application, any eight applications )


Applications of Compute Network

1) Banking

2) Video conferencing

3) Marketing

4) School

5) Radio

6) Television

7) E-mail

8) Companies


Q4) Explain need of computer network.( 1mark each point)


1) Sharing of information and data over the wide areas.

2) Communication from one computer to the other computer.

3) Sharing the resources such as printer among the network users.

4) Exchange the data and information among the users.

5) Sharing the expensive software and database.


Q5) List any two advantages of computer network. (2 marks)


Explain any four benefits of computer network. (1mark for each benefit)


1) File sharing:-  The major advantage of a computer network is that is allow file sharing. Person sitting in one computer can easily see the file present on another computer in a network.

2) Resource sharing:  with the help of computer network we can easily share resources. i.e one modem or printer can provide the service to all users.

3) Inexpensive set-up: Due to the resource sharing the cost of hardware is reduce. Due to file sharing  reduce the memory requirement which indirectly reduce the set up cost

4) Flexible handling: A user can log on to computer anywhere on the network and access his files. this offers flexibility to user.


Q6) List disadvantages of computer network.(1 mark each)


1) Security concerns:- Security issue is one of the major drawbacks.

2) Viruses: Viruses can be spread on a network easily, because of the interconnectivity of workstations.

3) Need an efficient handler:-The technical skills and knowledge required operate and administer  a computer network.

4)Lack of robustness:-If the main file server of a computer network breaks down, the entire system become useless.


Q7) Explain network features.(4 features  for 4 marks)


1) Sharing information.

2) File sharing.

3) E-mail

4) Sharing resources

5) Facility of  Centralized Management.


Q8) Explain the concept used in following services.(2 marks each)

I)File sharing        II)printer sharing


I)File sharing:-

1)Network file sharing is the process of copying files from one computer to another using a live network connection.

2)Any file can be centrally store and can be used by more than one user by sharing it.

3)More than one person cannot make changes to the file at the same time which is called as file locking.

4)Some users may have permission to view a shared file where other user may have permission to edit that shared file.




 2)Printer Sharing:-

1) Printer sharing is the allow you to share costly higher quality printer amongst the network users.

2) The most common way  of sharing a printer is to use printer queue on a server.

3) Printer queue holds print jobs until they are printed.

4) Any workstation can send print job to the printer queue instead of the waiting  for printer to process the job.

5) Printer can be connected to any workstation, which is called as printer server.

Diagram :-

Advantages of printer sharing:

1) It  reduce cost.

2) It allow user to place printer at any convenient place.

3) It allow to share costly network.

Disadvantages of printer sharing

1) Each user must wait its chance for printing.

2) server performance is reduce when printer is connected to server.


Q9) Classify the network. 


Types of computer network     


List any four types of computer network by considering geography.

          (Listing of any 4 networks – ½ Mark each)


            1) LAN Local Area Network

            2) MAN – Metropolitan Area Network   

            3) WAN Wide Area Network

            4) CAN – Campus Area Network

            5) HAN – Home Area Network

            6) PAN – Personal Area Network


Q10) Explain PAN with suitable diagram. Differentiate between PAN and CAN. (Two points only) (diagram- 1 mark,Explanation-1 mark, differentiation-any 2 points-1 mark each)



  • A personal area network(PAN) is a network organized around an individual person. A PAN can also be used for communication among personal devices themselves(interpersonal communication).
  • PAN network can be constructed using cables or it can be wireless.
  • A personal area network (PAN) is the interconnection of information technology devices within the range of an individual person, typically within a range of 10 meters.
  • For example, a person traveling with a laptop, a personal digital assistant (PDA), and a portable printer could interconnect them without having to plug anything in, using some form of wireless technology.
  • Typically, this kind of personal area network could also be interconnected without wires to the Internet or other networks.
                       PAN                           CAN
1. PAN is definitively the smallest type of network you can currently use and the name comes from Personal Area Network 1. This is a network spanning multiple LANs within a limited geographical area. 
2. PAN is the interconnected network of technologic devices within the reach of an individual person. 2.It can connect different buildings in its campus such as various departments, library etc
3. Range of maximum 10 meters. 3. The range of CAN is 1KM to 5KM
4. PAN is mainly used for personal communication  4. CAN is mainly used for corporate campuses


Q11) Explain LAN with diagram.   (4 marks)(Explanation-1 mark, diagram-1 mark, characteristic-1 mark,advantage-1 mark )


1)LAN is privately owned network covering a small geographic area i.e less than 1 KM.

2)LAN is a group of computer and associated devices connected by a communication channels.

3)LAN transmit data with a speed of several MB per second.

4)LAN link computer i.e software and hardware in the same area for the purpose of sharing information.

 5)LAN is high speed data network.

6)LAN have a data rate 10 to 100 MBPS.



Characteristic of LAN

  1. i) Easy physical connection of computer network.
  2. ii) High data transmission rate.

Advantage of LAN:

  1. i) Addition of new computer to network is easy.
  2. ii) High rate of data transmission is possible.
  3. iii)Less expensive to install.



Q12)Describe the situation where MAN is useful for an organization. Give one example. (2 marks explanation and 2 marks for exampl


Draw and explain MAN(2 marks explanation and 2 marks for example)


1) It is a network covering a larger area than LAN.

2) A MAN can covered a group of corporate office and can either private or publicly owned.

3) A MAN can support both data and voice.

4) MAN is high speed network that connects LAN.

5)In LAN the data is transmitted up to 80 kilometers.

6) The best example of MAN  is  cable television.


  • MAN cover large geographical area than LAN
  • MAN can connect many fast LAN togathor.




Q13) Draw and define WAN.(diagram 2m, advantage 1m, disadvantage 1m)


1) WAN can cover a wide geographic area such as state or counter.

2) A WAN provide a long distance transmission of data, voice, image and video over the large geographical area.

3) The internet is the public WAN.


  • WAN cover a large geographical area so long distance businesses can connect on the one network.
  • Everyone on the network can use the same data


  • WAN are expensive and slow.
  • Slow speed than LAN and MAN.
  • Security is the real issue.


Q14) Difference between LAN and WAN.     (4 marks)


                             LAN                               WAN
1)LAN is cover a limited geographical area 1)WAN cover large geographical area then LAN.
2)LAN can operate on very high speed rate. 2)WAN operate on low data rate.
3)LAN can easy to design and easy to maintain 3)WAN is not easy to design and maintain
4)cost of data transmission in LAN is less than WAN. 4)In WAN cost of data transmission is very high.
5)Transmission medium is co-axial cable. 5)Transmission medium is satellite links.
6)LAN operates on the principal of broadcasting. 6)WAN operates on the principal of swatiching.
7)It can be private owned network. 7)It can be private as well as public.


Q15)Difference between  LAN and MAN. (4 marks)


                                   LAN                                MAN
1) It use Guided Media 1) It use Guided and unguided media.
2) LAN provide high speed network. 2) MAN is slower than LAN.
3) LAN is private owned network. 3) MAN can be either private or public network.
4) These type of network are usually operated by individuals. 4) These type of network are operated by government bodies.
5) Ethernet and Token Ring are technology use in LAN. 5)The IUB network is an example of a MAN.


Q16)Difference between WAN and MAN. (4 marks)


                               WAN                               MAN
1)WAN is not restricted to a geographical area. 1) MAN having a restricted area.
2)Used Unguided media 2) It use guided or unguided media.
3) Use for long distance communication. 3) It restricted for limited area communication.
4) WAN spans over a wide area. 4) MAN having a limited area.
5) Internet is an example of WAN. 5)IUB network is an example of a MAN.


Q17) Draw and Explain peer to peer network.(4 marks)


1) P2P network is a type of decentralized and distributed network architecture.

2) Individual node in the network called peer act as a both suppliers and consumers of resources.

3) P2P network is useful  for small network containing less than 8-10 computer on a single LAN.

4) There is no central location for authentication user, store file or accessing resources.

5) It is difficult for users to track where information is located because data is generally store on multiple computer.



Advantages of P2P.

  • Less expensive.
  • Easy to install and maintain.
  • Good file, printer and CD ROM sharing.
  • No network operating system required.


  • Slow in speed.
  • Lack of central management.
  • Not very secure.
  • Hard to backup.


Q18) With neat diagram explain client server network along with its advantages and disadvantages.(4 marks)


1) Server is the central location where users share and access network resources.

2) Each computer that connects to the network is called a client computer.

3) Server operating system are handle the load when multiple client computer access server based resources.

4)Fig show client server Network.


6) Advantage of client server network.

  • Centralized: Resources and data security are controlled through the server.
  • Scalability: All element can be replace individually as needs increases.
  • Flexibility: New technology into can easily integrated into system.
  • Interoperability: All components work together.
  • Accessibility: Server can be accessed remotely.
  • Fast: Faster than P2P network.
  • High level of security.

 7)Disadvantages of client server network.

  • Expense: Required initial investment in dedicated server.
  • Maintenance: Required more maintenance.
  • Dependence: When server goes down, whole network goes down.


Q19)Different between peer to peer and server based network.(1 mark each point)


                         Peer to Peer                       Server Base network
1)Each computer is an equal participant on the network. 1)One computer act as  the network controller
2)Network is not centrally controlled 2)Network access and security are centrally controlled.
3)Can operates on a basic PC operating system. 3)Need a special operating system.
4)Are generally simple 4)Are generally more complex
5) Less expensive. 5) More expensive
6) No dedicated server is required. 6) Dedicated server is required.
7)computer are not dependent on single computer for resource. 7)All computer are depend on server for resource.
8)Any time the network can established 8)Initial planning is required for network establishment.


Q20) Describe any two advantages and two disadvantages of print server.


Advantage of print server.

  • Manages the print job easily.
  • Priority among the jobs.

Disadvantage of printer server.

  • Print server installation is coastally
  • Number of printers attached to the server increases the cost of the network.


Q21)Explain the server in detail.(4 mark)(1 mark each)


Describe features of application server mail server


Describe the features of database and application server.


Define File server.(2 mark)


1)File server:

  • These server provide the services for storing, retrieving and moving the data.
  • A user can read, write, exchange and manage the file with the help of file server.

2)Print server:

  • This type of server is used for controlling and managing printing on the network.
  • Printer server allows multiple users  on a network to share the printer.
  • A printer server handles the print file request.

3)Application server:

  • The expensive software and additional power can be share by the computer in the network with the help of application server.

4)Mail server:

  • Mail server are the E-mail servers which are used to email the information.

5)Database server:

  • It can allow the user to access the centralized stored database.


Q22) For following situation state which type of network architecture is appropriate.(1 mark each)

1)No of user 50

2)Data and resources need to be restricted.

3)No network administrator required.

4)All users with equal priority.


 1) client server

2) client server

3) peer to peer

4) peer to peer


Q23)List the advantage of computer hardware.(2 mark)


1) Provide better performance.

2) Fit to your standards.


Q24)For following situation which type of network architecture is appropriate.


1) Peer to Peer network.

2) Client server network.

3) Client to client network.

4) Peer to Peer network.


Q25)What is NIC? State 3 functions of NIC. (NIC 1 mark, any 3 functions 3 marks)


NIC( Network interface card / network adapter):

It physically makes the connection, works as interface between computer and network cable.

Functions of NIC:

1) Provide physical link or connectivity between computer and the network physical medium.

2) Prepare data from computer for network cable.

3) Send data to another node in network.

4) Control flow of data between computer and physical medium


Q26) Differentiate LAN and WAN by considering following points.

1) Geographical area   2) Installation cost

3) Bandwidth                   4) Speed. (Each point-1 Mark)


 Points LAN WAN
1) Geographical area Limited Geographical area of few kilo meters It covers a large area, it can operate Worldwide
2) Installation Cost Less High
3) Bandwidth High Low
4) Speed High Slow


27) Describe any 4 services provided by the network to people. (Any Four services- 1 Mark each)



  1. File sharing: –
  • Files can be centrally stored and used by multiple users.
  • Shared directory or disk drive is used.
  • If many users access same file on network and make changes at same time and
  • conflict occurs.
  • Network operating system performs file sharing and provides security to share files.
  1. Printer sharing:
  • Printer connected in a network can be shared in many ways .
  • Use printer queues on server.
  • Here printer is connected to server.
  • Each work station can access printer directly.
  • Printer can be connected to server.
  • Connect a printer to a computer in a network and run special print server software. Use built in print server.
  • Use dedicated print server.
  • By printer sharing reduces no. of printers needed.
  • Share costly and high quality printers.
  1. Application services:
  • Share application on a network.
  • When applications are centralized, amount of memory required on disk of work station is reduced.
  • It is easier to administer an application.
  • It is more secure and reliable.
  • It is faster and convenient.
  1. E-mail services.
  • Two types of email systems are available:

           1) File based system:

  1.  Files are stored in shared location on server.
  2.  Server provides access to file.
  3.  Gate way server connects from file based email system to internet.

           2) Client server e-mail system:

  1. E-mail server contains message and handles e-mail interconnections.
  2. E-mail client functions (also consider other e-mail functions): read mail, send, compose,forward,delete.
  3. E-mail protocols: SMTP, POP etc.


  1. Remote access:
  • Set up remote access service on network operating system.
  • Setup VPN (virtual private network) on internet terminal services (TELNET).
  • User can access files from remote location.
  • User can access centralized application or share files on LAN.

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