In the near future, i.e., beyond 4G, some of the prime objectives or demands that need to be addressed are increased capacity, improved data rate, decreased latency, and better quality of service. To meet these demands, drastic improvements need to be made in cellular network architecture. This paper presents the results of a detailed survey on the fifth generation (5G) cellular network architecture and some of the key emerging technologies that are helpful in improving the architecture and meeting the demands of users. In this detailed survey, the prime focus is on the 5G cellular network architecture, massive multiple input multiple output technology, and device-to-device communication (D2D). Along with this, some of the emerging technologies that are addressed in this paper include interference management, spectrum sharing with cognitive radio, ultra-dense networks, multi-radio access technology association, full duplex radios, millimeter wave solutions for 5G cellular networks, and cloud technologies for 5G radio access networks and software defined networks. In this paper, a general probable 5G cellular network architecture is proposed, which shows that D2D, small cell access points, network cloud, and the Internet of Things can be a part of 5G cellular network architecture. A detailed survey is included regarding current research projects being conducted in different countries by research groups and institutions that are working on 5G technologies.