3 Dimensional Computer Processor

1. INTRODUCTION
Computers are the most important in these age, without computer the life of peoples become slow. Computer processor is the main component of computers .Today the processors in computer are one dimensional .There is also two dimensional processors. The next major advance in computer processors will likely be the move from today’s two-dimensional chips to three-dimensional circuits.Unlike past attempts at 3-D chips, the Rochester chip is not simply a number of regular processors stacked on top of one another. It was designed and built specifically to optimize all key processing functions vertically, through multiple layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions horizontally. The design means tasks such as synchronicity, power distribution, and long-distance signaling are all fully functioning in three dimensions for the first time. In electronics, a three-dimensional integrated circuitis achipin which two or more layers of active electronics components are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit.
The electronics industryis pursuing this promising technology in many different forms, but it is not yet widely used; consequently, the definition is still somewhat fluid.An academic implementation of a 3D processor was presented in 2008 at the University of Rochester by Professor E by Friedman and his students. The chip runs at a 1.4 GHz and it was designed for optimized vertical processing between the stacked chips which gives the 3D processor abilities that the traditional one layered chip could not reach. One challenge in manufacturing of the three-dimensional chip was to make all of the layers work in harmony without any obstacles that would interfere with a piece of information traveling from one layer to another.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The next major advance in computer processors will likely be the move from today’s two-dimensional chips to three-dimensional circuits, and the first three-dimensional synchronization circuitry is now running at 1.4 gigahertz at the University of Rochester. Unlike past attempts at 3-D chips, the Rochester chip is not simply a number of regular processors stacked on top of one another. It was designed and built specifically to optimize all key processing functions vertically, through multiple layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions horizontally. The design means tasks such as synchronicity, power distribution, and long-distance signaling are all fully functioning in three dimensions for the first time. Computer processors are incredible pieces of technology, and they have come along in leaps and bounds over the past decade. They are more powerful, yet use less energy, and they have made it so that every day users can have the ability to multitask like never before. Now there has been a new breakthrough in computer processor technology. Intel has just announced its new Ivy Bridge 3-D chip.
The three-dimensional computer chip is made of many interconnected chips stacked on one another. This 3-D chip enhances technology because not like a two-dimensional layout, that can only be miniaturized horizontally, it can be constructed vertically which eliminates the limits of the 2-D chip. The first 3-D chip was named the Rochester Cube after the invention in University of Rochester. It is a very complex piece of technology that is still under development but it will also introduce different features that will advance technology. In the past attempts of making 3-D chips, scientist were just making a stack of regular processors. But at University of Rochesterit was designed and built specifically to optimize all key processing functions vertically, through multiple layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions horizontally.This design means that every tasks such as Synchronicity, Power Distribution, and Long-Distance Signaling are all fully functioning in three dimensions for the first time.
Eby Friedman and his students has designed this chip, which uses many of the tricks of regular processors, but also accounts for different impedances that might occur from chip to chip, different operating speeds, and different power requirements. According to Eby Friedman, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rochester and faculty director of the pro of the processor says:-“I call it a cube now, because it’s not just a chip anymore. This is the way computing is going to have to be done in the future. When the chips are flush against each other, they can do things you could never do with a Regular 2D chips which we are using from many days in computer.In the history attempts of making 3-D chips, scientist was just making a stack of standard processors. But at University of Rochester it was designed and built specially to optimize all input processing functions upright, through manifold layers of processors, the same way ordinary chips optimize functions straight .This design means that each chore such as Synchronicity, Influence Distribution, and Extended Distance Signaling are every fully functioning in 3 dimensions for the 1st time.

3. WHY THIS TECHNOLOGY IS INVENTED?
3.1 Todays Integrated Chips And Problems
The problem with today’s technology of integrated circuits is that, beyond a limit it is impossible to pack more chips next to each other which limits the capabilities of future processors. So number of integrated circuit designers anticipate someday expanding into the third dimension, stacking transistors on top of each other. Vertical Expansion of chips has lots of technical difficulties and the only solution to this is to design a 3-D chip where all the layers interact like a single system. According to Friedman: Getting all three levels of the 3-D chip to act in harmony is like trying to devise a traffic control system for the entire United States-and then layering two more United States above the first and somehow getting every bit of traffic from any point on any level to its destination on any other level-while simultaneously coordinating the traffic of millions of other drivers. Now if we replace the two United States layers to something more complicated like China and India where the driving laws and roads are quite different, and the complexity and challenge of designing a single control system to work in any chip begins to become apparent.
The 3-D Chip is essentially an entire circuit board folded up into a tiny package. With this technology the chips inside something like an iPod could be compacted to a tenth their current size with ten times the speed.

4.WHAT IS 3D INTEGRATED CIRCUIT?
A 3-D chip is an integrated circuit (IC)containing a three-dimensional array of interconnected devices performing digital, analog, image processing and neural-network functions, either individually or in combination.3-D chip technology solves a number of issues that have been challenging chip manufacturers looking for performance increases and reductions in processor size. As chips have grown smaller and more powerful, the wires that connect the increasing numbers of transistors have necessarily become both thinner and closer together, resulting in increased resistance and overheating. Both can cause signal delays, limiting the clock speed of central processing unit.
In April 2007, a new version of 3-D chips was announced by a partnership of IBM and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) researchers at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, with support from the Defence Advanced Research Project Agency(DARPA). These 3-D chips layer one chip upon another using a technique called wafer bonding. While some companies currently package processors by layering one upon another, IBM’s technique uses one base layer of siliconwith active wafers layered on top. This allows engineers to place a processor on the bottom of the stack and then layer memory or other components across the top, resulting in a thousand-fold decrease in connectorlength, as chips are no longer organized in a two-dimensional layouts with wires connecting transistors at the periphery of chips. This reduces the distance data has to travel, resulting in much faster processing. Similarly, a hundred-fold increase in connector density dramatically reduces the size of the chip IBM’s engineers used a new method of manufacturing called through silicon viasthat allows multiple chip components to be stacked upon one another vertically, creating faster, smaller and lower-power CPUs (central processing units). Through-silicon vias also allow for more efficient heat dissipation up through the stack to cooling systems and, according to IBM, improve power-efficiency in silicon-germanium based products up to 40%, resulting in longer battery life IBM expects to begin production of 3-D chips in 2008. “Big Blue” will be applying the technology initially in mobile devices and wireless communications. Memory-on-processor technology will be available for use in servers and supercomputers in 2009. Intel used a similar 3-D chip structure in February 2007 capable of teraflop processing (a trillion calculations per second), effectively performing calculations as quickly as a complete data center while consuming a tiny fraction of the energy. Either of these improvements may allow the extension of Moore’s Law well into the 21st century.Scientist at University of Rochester have developed a new generation of Computer Processors. These processors are based on 3-Dimensional Circuits in contrary to 2-Dimensional Circuits of today. This can be said as the next major advance in computer processors technology. The latest 3-D processoris running at 1.4 gigahertz in the labs of University.
4.1 3D Processor Chip
The three-dimensional computer chip is made of many interconnected chips stacked on one another. This 3-D chip enhances technology because not like a two-dimensional layout, that can only be miniaturized horizontally, it can be constructed vertically which eliminates the limits of the 2-D chip. The first 3-D chip was named the Rochester Cube after the University of Rochester in which it was invented. It is a very complex piece of technology that is still under development but it will also introduce different features that will advance technology.
4.1.1 Purpose
The smaller the size of a two-dimensional chip, the faster information can travel through it. Researchers believe that eventually the chip will not be able to be miniaturized any farther because as it decreases with size, the amount of heat produced by the chip will negate the gains of making it smaller. This heat is produced because the tighter the circuits of the chip get the more thermal energy created because thinner wires have greater resistance. The 3-D chip was invented to eliminate this problem because the processing components are stacked and connected. By layering these chips, the communication between them would be much faster than having the chips connected side by side, as in a planar layout. This chip will
• Increase device bandwidth: The increase of rate at which data gets transferred.
• Decrease form factor: The decrease in the physical dimensions of the component. Form factor (Radiative Transfer) or emissivity, the proportion of energy transmitted by that object which can be transferred to another object
• Reduce energy: It limits the power consumption because of the smaller inner connections.
5.WORLD’S FIRST STACKED 3D PROCESSOR CREATED

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Figure 5.1: Schematic of a three dimensional circuit

As processors continue to head in the direction of miniaturization, with an ever increasing number of cores, some design engineers believe miniaturization will eventually hit a limit and the only direction left to go will be upwards. One such engineer is Eby Friedman of the University of Rochester, co-creator of a new 3D chip technology, and he believes his new processor is unique to previous 3D chip designs.Unlike past 3D chips that were simply stacks of regular processors, this new chip, or “cube” as Friedman calls it, has its layers flush against one another, with millions of tiny holes drilled through the layers to connect them, giving the 3D chip abilities unachievable by single layer processors. The new 3-D processor was designed specifically for optimized vertical processing between layers, much like how traditional processors have been designed for horizontal processing.
Currently the design of the processor Friedman and his students have created clocks in at 1.4 GHz and it is the first 3D chip to ever feature such tasks as synchronicity, power distribution and long-distance signaling. With limits of miniaturization facing the integrated circuit industry, stacking of transistors is believed by some designers to be an eventual direction for processor designs, but such a direction will introduce many new challenges of its own.Friedman says that one difficulty will be having all the layers interact together as a single system, where accomplishing such harmony in a 3D chip would be much like stacking the traffic systems of the United States, China and India on top of one another. Each traffic system will have its own different set of traffic laws and having to allow drivers at any point move between layers while still simultaneously managing all the other traffic.
A while back we saw IBM looking ahead to 3D chip stacks as well, but the company quickly realized that it would have to overcome a major obstacle heat. Conventional cooling methods do not scale well with 3D chip stacks and IBM’s solution to this future problem was designing the chip stacks to allow water to flow between the layers, providing for a scalable cooling solution. Interconnects between the layers would be insulated, protecting them from the water and allowing for the layers to still communicate at high-speeds. Whether or not the new 3D processors that the University of Rochester have designed would be able to integrate similar technologies, has yet to be seen.

6. ACTUAL 3DCOMPUTER PROCESSOR

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Figure.6.1: 3D Processor at 1.4GHz, Optimized in Three Direction

This is the view of first 3D processor developed at the University of Rochester3-Dimentional Computer Processor is one of the latest technology of Computer Science .These processor are based on 3 Dimensional Circuit opposite to 2 Dimensional processor .This latest 3D processor runs at 1.4 ghz .For the first time all the tasks i.e. synchronization, long distance signaling and power distribution are fully functioning .There are many difficulties
in 2-D computer processor to overcome those difficulties 3-D processor chip is invented.

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Figure 6.2:

We’ve heard a only little before about the three-dimensional computer processors that promise to be the way ahead to an even faster future, so it’s encouraging to see that Honda has succeeded in creating a working 3D chip .Whereas other 3D CPUs are intended for future computers, Honda’s breakthrough is going to power Asimo, the company’s attention-seeking humanoid robot .The Japanese company’s research arm has stacked three different chips together to create one 3D prototype that consists of a processing core, a signal converter and a chunk of memory .Moreover, it has solved the problem of connecting them by using a set of spikes on the bottom chip that pierces all three parts and connects them electrically .The new breed of processor works about twice as fast as normal so-called 2D chips and has the added benefit of consuming a third less power because of the proximity of components eliminating the need for much of the wiring. There’s still no word on a commercial 3D chip being released, however.
7. INTEL’S NEXT PROCESSOR WILL USE 3-D STRUCTURE
Computer processors are incredible pieces of technology, and they have come along in leaps and bounds over the past decade. They are more powerful, yet use less energy, and they have made it so that every day users can have the ability to multitask like never before. Now there has been a new breakthrough in computer processor technology. Intel has just announced its new Ivy Bridge 3-D chip.
7.1 No chip of the old block
Intel’s latest technological feat is really quite amazing. When I Say 3-D chip, I do not mean that the processor will be able to handle 3-D images, rather the chip itself is 3-D. Normally computer chips are made up of layers of flat semiconductors, and transistors, and while chip manufacturers have been able to shrink the size of these semiconductors over the years, they had reached some physical limits.
The engineers at Intel decided the only way forward was to make microscopic, 3-D semiconductors, and transistors. The design of this chip is amazing in itself, but what is really spectacular (and what consumers will care about) is that they will be more powerful, and more efficient than any chip ever made before.
7.2 More power and more efficient
One of the biggest problems with computers is the amount of heat they generate, and one of the biggest issues with mobile devices such as laptops, netbooks, and Smartphone is that they only have a limited amount of power available to them from their battery. This revolutionary new chip not only combats both of those issues, but it also does it while being even more efficient.
The new technology is being slated for Intel’s next batch of processors called Ivy Bridge. Bearing in mind that Intel’s latest processors known as Sandy Bridge are the most efficient to date, the new Ivy Bridge chips will use up to 50% less power, and will perform up to 37% quicker than current generation processors.
7.3 What does all this mean?
What does this mean? The implications are going to be huge when it comes to mobile devices. Users will be able to much more powerful smartphones, much more powerful laptops, but they will also be able to enjoy the benefits of having batteries that will last much longer while on the go.Less charging will mean happier end users, and less scalding heat coming from your laptop as it sits on your legs will be welcome too. There is no release date for the new tri-gate design chips, but I cannot wait until they are released.

8. ADVANTAGES
• Increase device bandwidth: The increase of rate at which data gets transferred.
• Decrease form factor: The decrease in the physical dimensions of the component.
• Reduce energy: It limits the power consumption because of the smaller inner connections.
• It is based on latest technology, so it will contain many features.
• It is thermal efficient.
9. DISADVANTAGES
Because this technology is new it carries new challenges, including:
• It will be costlier.
• Yield – Each extra manufacturing step adds a risk for defects. In order for 3D ICs to be commercially viable, defects could be repaired or tolerated, or defect density can be improved.
• Design complexity – Taking full advantage of 3D integration requires sophisticated design techniques and new CAD tools.

10. APPLICATIONS
The 3-D Chip is essentially an entire circuit board folded up into a tiny package. With this technology the chips inside something like an iPod could be compacted to a tenth their current size with ten times the speed.
• It will be used in i-pods.
• It will be used in netbooks.
• It will be used in tablets.
• It will be used in all integrated equipments where power consumption should be less.

11. CONCLUSION
Vertical Expansion of chips has lots of technical difficulties and the simply explanation to this is to design a 3-D chip where all the layers interrelate like a solitary system. Getting all 3 levels of the 3-D chip to act in agreement is like trying to plan a traffic control system for the entire United States-and then layering 2 more United States above the 1st and somehow getting every bit of traffic from any point on any level to its purpose on any other level-while concurrently coordinating the traffic of millions of other drivers.
Now if we reinstate the 2 United States layers to something more complicated like China and India where the pouring laws and roads are fairly diverse and the complexity and confront of designing a single control system to work in any chip begins to befall obvious. The 3-D Chip is fundamentally an whole circuit board folded up into a tiny package. With this technology the chips inside something like an iPod could be compressed to a 10th their current size with ten times the velocity.

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